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Word of Faith (& Prosperity Teachings)

Word of Faith (also known as Word-Faith or simply Faith Teachings) is a doctrine in many Pentecostal and Charismatic churches as well as individual ministries worldwide. It is akin to Prosperity teaching, but not completely identical - usually both are preached together. The movement emphasizes speaking, stating, or confessing verses found in the Bible, in orer to activate them (almost automatically) aside from the will of God.

Prosperity teaching applies the Word of Faith technique of claiming the promises in the bible to wealth, well-being, prosperity, advancement and success as well as healing and even cheating death. It is taught that financial blessing is the will of God for all Christians, and that faith, positive speaking, and donations to Christian ministries will always increase one's material wealth. In a similar way, perfect health is taught as the gold standard of the bible and through faith Christians should claim and believe for this at all times. Being ill therefore is often condemned as a "lack of faith".

Word of Faith and Revival Leaders: What They Teach

For a more extensive list go here:

Here's a compilation of quotes from the tapes, videos, book and TV appearances of various popular leaders (some from the list compiled in 1992 by Jim Fox and previously on this website in a separate document).

This is just a SMALL selection of quotes! Many more could be gleaned from books, tapes and articles.

Leaders include:

  • Paul Crouch
  • Rory Alec (GOD TV)
  • Kenneth Copeland
  • Kenneth Hagin
  • John Kilpatrick ("Partners in Revival")
  • John Bevere
  • Benny Hinn
  • Rodney Howard Browne (The "Holy Ghost Bartender")
  • Charles Capps
  • Fred Price
  • E. W. Kenyon (Word of Faith pioneer)
  • John Avanzini
  • Paul E. Billheimer ("Destined For The Throne")
  • Joyce Meyer
  • Jerry Savelle

Doubters Will Suffer

Benny Hinn: “Those who put us down are a bunch of morons. ... You know, I’ve looked for one verse in the Bible, I just can’t seem to find it. One verse that says, ‘If you don’t like ’em, kill ’em.’ I really wish I could find it. ... Sometimes I wish God would give me a Holy Ghost machine gun — I blow your head off!” (Benny Hinn on TBN’s “Praise-A-Thon,” April 1990).

Beny Hinn: “Be careful! Your little ones may suffer because of your stupidity. Now I’m pointing my finger today, with the mighty power of God on me, and I speak. ... And your children will suffer. If you care for your kids, stop attacking Benny Hinn” (World Charismatic Conference, Aug. 7, 1992).

Kenneth Copeland: “Several people that I know had criticized and called that faith bunch out of Tulsa a cult. And some of ’em are dead right today in an early grave because of it, and there’s more than one of them got cancer” (“Why All Are Not Healed,” tape #01-4001).

Benny Hinn: I want to tell you why I believe people get sick...In 2 Chronicles 16, verse 10 - and I like to read this - verse 10 and 11 and 12, the Bible says sickness comes when individuals attack preachers..."And Asa in the thirty and ninth year of his reign was diseased in his feet, until his disease was exceeding great: yet in his disease he sought not to the LORD, but to the physicians." The reason this man was struck with sickness is because he had been persecuting God's servant and oppressing the people of God. We see in the Word of God, God declares in His Word, "Touch not mine anointed and do my prophets no harm." Now that was spoken concerning Israel, yet applies to the body of Christ today, and we must be so careful not to attack men of God even when these men of God are not living right. (From Praise The Lord, Trinity Broadcasting Network, June 8, 1998.)

Paul Crouch: "That old rotten Sanhedrin crowd, twice dead, plucked up by the roots ... they're damned and on their way to hell and I don't think there's any redemption for them ... the hypocrites, the heresy hunters that want to find a little mote of illegal doctrine in some Christian's eyes ... when they've got a whole forest in their own lives. ... "I say, `To hell with you! Get out of my life! Get out of the way! Quit blockin' God's bridges! I'm tired of this! ... This is my spirit. Oh, hallelujah!' ... (TBN’s “Praise-A-Thon,” April 2, 1991)

Paul Crouch : "We gotten so caught up in theology and debating and discussing theology and nit picking on this, and the heretic hunters have smokescreened the whole thing." (The Christian Channel Europe "Praise The Lord" 14/6/98)

Rory Alec : "No Devil on this earth will stop this ministry and I would warn you this morning don't speak evil of the things of God. Do not speak evil of the projects of the Lord God."  (The Christian Channel Europe "Good Morning Europe" Date Unknown)

Paul Crouch: ....I want you all to listen carefully. This is a word - a prophetic word that came to me on September the 25th.... The ministry of TBN is about to explode...... It is time, once and for all, to take your sword in hand, the mighty sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. Speak it out. Proclaim defeat to the enemies of God. Stand up, everybody. In the Name of Jesus, we proclaim defeat to the enemies of God. .... The enemies of God are defeated in the Name and by the blood of Jesus Christ. They are under our feet by the victory of Jesus Christ when He said, "Behold, I am He Who was dead, but am alive forevermore, and have the keys of death and of hell." We receive it in Jesus' Name. Take authority over the principalities and powers that dare to threaten this ministry. I have raised it up from infancy for My own purposes, saith the Lord. Just as I commanded Ezekiel to prophesy life to dry bones, and they took on life, so I am commanding you to prophesy death to the threats, challenges, and bondages the enemy has placed on TBN. Command them to cease and desist, and you will see this dilemma die and disappear before your eyes. God, we proclaim death to anything or anyone that will lift a hand against this network and this ministry that belongs to You, God. It is Your work, it is Your idea, it is Your property, it is Your airwaves, it is Your world, and we proclaim death to anything that would stand in the way of God's great voice of proclamation to the whole world. In the Name of Jesus, and all the people said Amen! (Praise The Lord Trinity Broadcasting Network November 7, 1997)

John Kilpatrick: "......Well, if what God hears determines to a large degree what God does, I think we need to be careful. I want to say that again. What God hears determines, to a large degree, what God does. Grumbling and murmuring causes Satanic activity to stir against us....Did you know, when you just let your mouth fly off at the handle and you just let your lips say anything they want to say, and you let your tongue be cut loose and then start speaking out all kind of darkness and all kind of fear and all kind of unbelief, I want you to know you're ordering it. You're ordering that and it will come to you. It will come to you. (God's Ears, April 6, 1997)

John Bevere : "I am so tired of criticalness being called discernment. Do you want to know true discernment? Paul said "That your love may abound in all discernment." When you are willing to die for somebody that is when you are acually discerning them. Jesus could call the Pharisees hypocrites and snakes because he went to the cross and died for them. So the next time you are quote discerning about somebody ask yourselves the question could you die for them? If you can`t say yes, you're critical because the love of God is to lay down your life for them, and discernment is rooted only in love. Got it?" (The Christian Channel Europe "The Messenger" 26/3/98)

John Kilpatrick : "The Lord spoke this to me right after He gave me this concept about the banners for praying. He said to me - because I'd gotten real critical, like Steve was talking about a while ago. I got real critical, and I said, "Lord," - you know, I'd watched TBN, things like that, and I could feel my lips snarling and I just, you know, I just was critical. I'd see certain people on TV and I wanted to flip to something secular to get away from that religious, because it just turned me off. I felt like it was inferior quality. I felt like a lot of it was put on and hype. I felt like a lot of it was counterfeit. One day I was riding along in my car going to the nursing home to see my mother as she was dying, and the Lord spoke to me just as clear as a bell, and I don't ever say either Chaplain that God speaks to me either, because I've never been one to say that much. But He spoke to my heart so strong it rattled me and I had to pull off to the side of the road and put my car in park and repent. But the Lord spoke to my heart and He said, "You know," He said, "If you don't humble yourself like a little boy and repent of your critical spirit, I'll have to pass you by." And I pulled off to the side of the road, I was so startled, and I said, "Lord, please forgive me! And you know what? I turned on TBN not long after that, and some of the very people that turned me off, all of a sudden I looked at them with different eyes, because I had repented, and I looked at them with different eyes and they ministered to me and I broke and wept in my living room before the Lord. God touched my heart. And I had to humble myself down like a little boy and learn again to receive from the Lord. I had to learn to receive from people again." (John Kilpatrick, Brownsville Assembly of God videotape, May 30, 1997)

Benny Hinn: "I place a curse on every man and every woman that would stretch his hand against this anointing; I curse that man who dares to speak a word against this ministry... "(Denver Crusade, September 17th 1999)

You Are Gods

Rory Alec : "This represents the fact that Jesus, when you partake of this, this represents that his blood has washed you clean of all sin. And therefore you are gods; you have been purchased by the blood of Jesus." (The Christian Channel Europe "Good Morning Europe" Date Unknown) 

Paul Crouch, speaking to Kenneth Copeland, said : "Somebody said--I don't know who said it--but they claim that you Faith teachers declare that we are gods. You're a god. I'm a god. Small 'g' now, but we are the gods of this world. . . . Well, are you a god--small 'g'?" To this, Jan Crouch, referring to Copeland, enthusiastically exclaimed: "He's gonna say, 'Yes.' I love it." ("Praise the Lord" program on TBN [5 February 1986].)

Paul Crouch : "He [God] doesn't even draw a distinction between Himself and us. . . . You know what else that's settled, then, tonight? This hue and cry and controversy that has been spawned by the Devil to try and bring dissension within the body of Christ that we are gods. I am a little god! . . . I have His name. I'm one with Him. I'm in covenant relation. 1 am a little god! Critics, be gone!" ("Praise the Lord" program on TBN [7 July 1986].)

Kenneth Copeland : "God's reason for creating Adam was His desire to reproduce Himself. I mean a reproduction of Himself, and in the Garden of Eden He did just that. He was not a little like God. He was not almost like God. He was not subordinate to God even. . . . Adam is as much like God as you could get, just the same as Jesus. . . . Adam, in the Garden of Eden, was God manifested in the flesh." ("Following the Faith of Abraham I," Tape #01-3001 side 1.)

More from this tape:

  • God's reason for creating Adam was to reproduce Himself. (Following the Faith of Abraham, Tape #01-3001)
  • Adam was not subordinate to God. (Following the Faith of Abraham, Tape #01-3001)
  • Adam was God manifested in the flesh. (Following the Faith of Abraham, Tape #01-3001)
  • God made Adam the God of the earth. (Following the Faith of Abraham; Tape #01-3001)

Kenneth E. Hagin : "Originally, God made the earth and the fullness thereof, giving Adam dominion over all the works of His hands. In other words, Adam was the god of this world." (The Believer's Authority, 2d ed. [Tulsa, OK: Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1991], 19.)

Kenneth Copeland: "The Spirit of God spoke to me and He said, 'Son, realize this. Now follow me in this and don't let your tradition trip you up.' He said, ... 'A born-again man defeated Satan, the firstborn of many brethren defeated him.' He said, 'You are the very image, the very copy of that one." ... And I began to see what had gone on in there, and I said, 'Well now you don't mean, you couldn't dare mean, that I could have done the same thing?' He said, 'Oh yeah, if you'd had the knowledge of the Word of God that He did, you could have done the same thing, 'cause you're a reborn man too.'" (Substitution and Identification, tape #00-0202, side 2.)

Benny Hinn : "I'm going to be led by the Holy Ghost today Is that all right with you?...God came from heaven, became a man; made man into little gods, went back to heaven as a man. He faces the Father as a man. I face devils as the son of God. Do you see what I'm talking about'! You say, 'Benny, am I a little God?' You're a son of God, aren't you? You're a child of God, aren't you? You're a daughter of God, aren't you? What else are you? Quit your nonsense! What else are you? If you say, 'I am' you're saying I'm a part of Him, right? Is He God? Are you His offspring? Are you His children? You can't be human! You can't! You can't! God didn't give birth to flesh. He gave birth to a new creation. And the new creation is not flesh and blood and bone, for no flesh and blood would inherit heaven. Did you hear what I said? Some of you didn't really hear what I said. You said, 'Well, that's heresy. No, that's your crazy brain saying that." ("Our Position in Christ #2--The Word Made Flesh" [Orlando, FL: Orlando Christian Center, 1991], audiotape #A031190-2, side 2.)

Benny Hinn : "When you were born again the Word was made flesh in you. And you became flesh of His flesh and bone of His bone. Don't tell me you have Jesus. You are everything He was and everything He is and ever He shall be. . . . It [the new man] says, 'I am as He is.' That's what it says. As He is, so are we in this world. Jesus said, 'Go in my name, go in my stead.' Don't say, 'I have.' Say, 'I am, I am, I am, I am, I am.' That's why you never ever, ever, ever ought to say. 'I'm sick.' How can you be sick if you're the new creation? Say, 'I'm healed!' Don't say, 'I'm a sinner.' The new creature is no sinner. I'm the righteousness of God in Christ." (Ibid.)

Benny Hinn : "Adam was a super-being when God created him. I don't know whether people know this, but he was the first superman that really ever lived. First of all, the Scriptures declare clearly that he had dominion over the fowls of the air, the fish of the sea--which means he used to fly. Of course, how can he have dominion over the birds and not be able to do what they do? The word 'dominion' in the Hebrew clearly declares that if you have dominion over a subject, that you do everything that subject does. In other words, that subject, if it does something you cannot do, you don't have dominion over it. 1'11 prove it further. Adam not only flew, he flew to space. He was--with one thought he would be on the moon." ("Praise the Lord" program on TBN [26 December 1991].)

Benny Hinn : "When you say, 'I am a Christian, you are saying, 'I am mashiach' in the Hebrew. I am a little messiah walking on earth, in other words That is a shocking revelation.... May I say it like this? You are a little god on earth running around." ("Praise-a-Thon" program on TBN [6 November 1990].)

Ken Hagin We (the church) are Christ. (As Christ is -- So are we, Tape #44H06)

Paul Crouch: God opens up the union of the very godhead (Trinity), and brings us into it. (Praise-a-thon (TBN), November 1990)

Ken Copeland: Every Christian is a god. (Force of Love; Tape #02-0028) (Believer's Voice of Victory, broadcast July 9, 1987)

Ken Copeland: God and Adam looked exactly alike. (The Authority of the Believer IV; Tape #01-0304)

Ken Copeland: There is a god class of beings. (Force of Love; Tape #02-0028) (Praise the Lord broadcast (TBN), recorded 2/5/86)

Ken Copeland: All of God's attributes and abilities were invested in Adam. (The Authority of the Believer IV; Tape #01-0304)

Miracles, Signs and Wonders

Benny Hinn : "We are living in the most exciting days in history. Now are you saints ready for what the Lord is going to do in the coming few months and years on earth. The church of Jesus is coming into a new demension in the spirit. I am not just saying it these are not empty words. God Almighty is about to bring his church into a new dimension. Now please here me we have heard it prophesied through Kathryn Kuhlman, Smith Wigglesworth, Oral Roberts and others that have come before. We are living in the day when the greatest of all outpourings is going to begin. If you should peek into tomorrow, if God should allow you to see whats coming you would not be able to sleep for probably a year; you would not know what to do with yourself.

I said to the Lord one day, I said Lord please allow me just a little peek. Just let me see just a little bit of what is coming. And the Lord showed me. And you say what did you see? I will tell you something right now ladies and gentlemen. I had a dream right after that question, right after I said show me what you're about to do. I had a dream.  In the dream I saw Kathryn Kuhlman and Kathryn said to me follow me and I followed her she took me into another room and there stood the Lord, and now the Lord said follow me, and he took me to a third room and there in that room was a man. And when I saw the Lord Kathryn disappeared. I saw her first and now the second room I saw the Lord and now in the third room was this man sitting on a wheel chair crippled. This man was compelety crippled he had a hole in his neck and a long tube down his neck. The man was paralysed and I saw the Lord lay his hands on this man and heal him compelety, not only heal him - the tube disappeared. The hole closed up the man got up he was perfectly healed and whole. And now the Lord looked at me with piercing eyes and said DO IT. DO IT. I am talking about a command from heaven a order from the throne of heaven it said "DO IT". "I woke up I was trembling. I know what that dream was all about. It was Kathryn Kuhlman that introduced me to the Holy Spirit. That was the first room but Kathryn is gone. In the second room was Jesus he said follow me and there was a man, and in that room I saw the Lord heal him. And the Lord said "DO IT". Saints I have news for you we are about to see creative miracles in the Body of Christ we are going to see the supernatural intervention of the Holy Spirit." (The Christian Channel Europe "Praise The Lord" (TBN) 22/2/98)

Rodney Howard Browne :[commenting on manifestations of dumbness] "To be honest with you what`s happening hear is a sign and a wonder. It is a sign to the individual especially if you are a preacher of the gospel and you are no longer able to preach. I tell you this is a miracle. To quieten any preacher is a major move of God. It is like raising Lazurus from the dead." (The Christian Channel Europe "Chronicles of Revival" 17/2/98) 

Benny Hinn : "Years ago when I was preaching in Texas I was preaching for Tele Osborne's Sister who had a church. Maybe still does, I do not know this was many years ago : And she said "I want to show you something" she said, "I want to show you something." I said please do, so she brought a picture. On the picture was a man without a leg, without a leg now she said "let me show you another picture" : And on that other picture their was the same man with two legs. During one of TLS meetings in Africa God Almighty performed a creative miracle and a whole leg grew out of that mans body. Now saints that was only a taste I believe of what the church will see in the coming days." (The Christian Channel Europe "Praise The Lord" (TBN) 22/2/98)

Benny Hinn speaks of many supernatural experiences on the TBN network. For example, he said that the Lord was in front of him and when he moved his arm so did Jesus. When he moved his foot so did Jesus. This continued until they walked together and they merged becoming one. (Benny Hinn, Personal testimony, July 1987 audio # A071987, Orlando Christian Center as cited in "Touch, Topple, Tilt" by Mike Oppenheimer, Let Us Reason, P.O. 683, Wahiawa HI 96786)

Blowing people down with the "spirit"
The anointing or power plays a major role at Benny Hinn's "miracle services." Hinn blows or throws the "anointing" and "slays" people from a distance. As Mike Thomas reported in Florida Magazine, Nov. 24, 1991: "Winded catchers try to keep up with the toppling bodies. He rears back and with a pitching motion slays the entire choir with one toss. "That's power," yells Benny." "POWER!" ... Hinn takes off his custom tailored jacket and rubs it briskly on his body. He is rubbing the Power into the jacket. Then he starts swinging it wildly, like the biblical David swinging his sling. He decks his followers left and right. Bam! Bam! Bam! The stage vibrates with their landings. Then he throws it [the "anointed" jacket]. Another bam. As a catcher moves to pick up a woman, Hinn slays him ... then he slays the catcher who caught the catcher. When Benny Hinn is moved, nobody is safe from the Power ... [H]e blows loudly into the microphone ... Hundreds fall backward ... a woman collapses in the aisle and begins to babble. And then, suddenly, Benny is gone. The power vanishes from the room, and the people stare in stunned silence."

Strange Doctrines and Sayings

Ken Copeland: Earth is a copy of the mother planet (Heaven). (Following the Faith of Abraham, Tape #01-3001)

Ken Copeland: God is approximately 6'2" to 6'3" tall. (Spirit, Soul, and Body; Tape #01-0601)

Ken Copeland: God weighs approximately 200 lbs. (Spirit, Soul, and Body; Tape #01-0601)

Benny Hinn : "Now I am going to read one scripture and then I am going to preach and the Devil is going to drop dead." (The Christian Channel Europe "Praise The Lord" (TBN) 22/2/98)

Rodney Howard Browne: "Take your hands off Jesus as the head of the church and trust the Holy Ghost the unseen one, that he will lead you and not hurt you, that he will comfort you, that he will help you  and oh the church shall not run into loss but the church shall walk in the blessing of God and the church shall profit and great shall be the rejoicing. Saith the Lord" (The Christian Channel Europe "Chronicles of Revival" 10/2/98)

Kenneth Copeland : "Heaven has a north and a south and an east and a west. Consequently, it must be a planet." ("Spirit, Soul and Body I" [Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Ministries. 1985] audiotape #01-0601, side 1.)

Charles Capps : "God said, Let us make man in our image after our likeness. The word likeness in the original Hebrew means " an exact duplication in kind." . . . Adam was an exact duplication of God's kind!" (Authority in Three Worlds [Tulsa, OK: Harrison House, 1982], 15-16, emphasis in original.)

Kenneth Copeland : "You don't think earth was first, do you? Huh? Well, you don't think that God made man in His image, and then made earth in some other image? There is not anything under this whole sun that's new. Are you hearing what I'm saying? This is all a copy. It's a copy of home. It's a copy of the Mother Planet. Where God lives, He made a little one just like His and put us on it." ("Following the Faith of Abraham I" [Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Ministries, 1989], audiotape #01-3001, side 1.)

Kenneth Copeland : "God spoke Adam into existence in authority with words (Gen. 1:26,28). These words struck Adam's body in the face. His body and God were exactly the same size." (Holy Bible, Kenneth Copeland Reference Edition [Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Ministries, 1991], 45, emphasis in original.)

Kenneth Copeland : "Adam was made in the image of God. He was as much female as he was male. He was exactly like God. Then God separated him and removed the female part. Woman means 'man with the womb.' Eve had as much authority as Adam did as long as they stayed together." (Sensitivity of Heart [Fort Worth, TX: KCP Publications, 1984], 23.)

Benny Hinn : "He [the Holy Spirit] says. 'God's original plan is that the woman was to bring forth children out of her side.'. . .Adam gave birth to his wife out of his side. It was sin that turned the thing around. . . . And it was sin that transformed her flesh and her body. When God took the woman out of man, He closed up his rib. But she was created identically as him. In other words, she was created with an opening in her side, and children were supposed to be born. And I get that from the very fact that you'll never see birth spiritually, except from the side." ("Our Position In Christ #5--An Heir of God" [Orlando, FL: Orlando Christian Center, 1990], audiotape #A031190-5, side 2.)

Words of Faith

Robert Tilton: Do not say "Lord if it be thy will". (Success in Life, recorded 12/14/91)

Kenneth Copeland: "God used the principle of the inner image to create the earth...God first had a desired result (an inner idea or image of what he wanted to create) and then He said "light be!". But Brother Copeland, you say, that was GOD. Surely you don't expect me to try to act like God! I most certainly do....If all things were made by Him and the Word is God, then I believe we have license to say that all things were made by the Word...God's words are packed with faith; faith is the energy that is in the Word that gives it the power to bring itself to pass...once you have an inner image, nothing can stop you from receiving from God." ("The Image of God in You" KCP Puclications 1987)

Kenneth Hagin: "I'm tired of hearing that religious jargon that we're tired and lonely; we're the meekest and the lowliest...Believe in God! Believe in yourself! There never was a person who succeeded in life who didn't believe he could do it. You may argue, "But I don't want to be egotistical..." That's a lie the devil concocted to cause people not to succeed. Somebody's always talking about being humble. There are some people who are so humble they are proud of their humility! Religious people will tell you "Don't every get conceited..." but the devil tried to rob people through false modesty too...God can't do anything on this earth without a man or woman who will do it for's God's plan of action; therefore we need to begin to believe in ourselves." ("How to Make the Dream God gave you Come True" Faith Library Publications:1981)

Ken Copeland: Faith is a Force. (Spirit, Soul and Body, #01-0601, Tape #1)

Ken Copeland: God did not create the world out of nothing, He used the Force of His Faith. (Spirit, Soul and Body, #01-0601, Tape #1)

Fred Price: "If you keep talking death, that is what you are going to have. If you keep talking sickness and disease, that is what you are going to have, because you are going to create the reality of them with your own mouth. That is a divine law." (Fred Price, Realm, 29).

Kenneth Hagin : "Jesus used the fig tree to demonstrate that He had that God-kind of faith, then He said to the disciples--and to us--'You have that kind of faith.'...Jesus said He had the God-kind of faith; He encouraged His disciples to exercise that kind of faith; and He said that 'whosoever' could do it. . . . That is why Jesus said, 'whosoever shall say . . . and shall not doubt IN HIS HEART.' " (Having Faith in Your Faith [Tulsa, OK: Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1988], 3, emphasis in original.)

Kenneth Copeland : "The force of faith is released by words. Faith-filled words put the law of the Spirit of life into operation. (The Force of Faith, Kenneth Copeland, Ft. Worth: Kenneth Copeland Publications, 1983).

Charles Capps : "God filled His words with faith to cause the things He said to come into manifestation. There was an image inside Him. He expressed it in words." (The Substance of Things [Tulsa, OK: Harrison House, 1990], 19.)

Kenneth Copeland : "What you are saying is exactly what you are getting now. If you are living in poverty and lack and want, change what you are saying.... The powerful force of the spiritual world that creates the circumstances around us is controlled by the words of the mouth." (The Laws of Prosperity, Kenneth Copeland, Ft. Worth: Kenneth Copeland Publications, 1974).

John Kilpatrick : "You need to understand friends, your words are like containers. When they come up out of the innermost part of your belly, out of the heart, the mouth speaketh. As these things come out of your heart, they are spirits, by the time the come out of your mouth, that spirit is encapsulated in some little package and when you begin to speak this stuff out whether it is good or evil, it comes out in the way of little containers in your home and it goes out in your home and it begins to burst. As they burst life is either released or death is released. Blessings are released or cursings are released." (Glory on Your House, John Kilpatrick)

Kenneth Copeland : "Faith is a power force. It is a tangible force. It is a conductive force." (The Force of Faith [Fort Worth, TX: KCP Publications, 1989], 10.)

Charles Capps : "Faith is the substance, the raw material....Faith is the substance that God used to create the universe, and He transported that Faith with His words....Faith is the substance of things, but you can't see faith. Faith is a spiritual force." (Changing the Seen & Shaping the Unseen [Tulsa, OK: Harrison House, 1980], 14-15.)

Charles Capps : "He framed the world with His words. You can't build without substance. He took words--faith-filled words were God's substance. Here, essentially, is what God did. God filled His words with faith. He used His words as containers to hold His faith and contain that spiritual force and transport it out there into the vast darkness by saying 'Light be!' That's the way God transported His faith causing creation and transformation." (Dynamics of Faith & Confession [Tulsa, OK: Harrison House, 1987], 28-29, emphasis in original.)

Kenneth Copeland : "He [Lucifer or Satan] tried to use the power of words against God. . . .At that point, their words clashed and God's Word--the Word of a free Spirit, a Spirit with authority--reigned in victory over the word of an angelic power." (The Power of the Tongue [Fort Worth, TX: KCP Publications, 1980], 6-7.)

Kenneth Copeland : "So before Jesus came to the earth, God spoke His Word and then spoke His Word again. How many times did He say the Messiah was coming? It was prophesied over hundreds, even thousands, of years. He kept saying, 'He is coming. He is coming.' The circumstances in the earth made it look as if there was no way He could accomplish it; but He just kept saying it. He would not be moved by what He saw. . . .God would not relent." (Ibid., 9-10.)

Kenneth Copeland : "The angels spoke the words of the covenant to her [Mary). She pondered them in her heart, and those words became the seed. And the Spirit of God hovered over her and generated that seed, which was the Word that the angel spoke to her. And there was conceived in her, the Bible says, a holy thing. The Word literally became flesh." ("The Abrahamic Covenant" [Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Ministries, 1985], audiotape #01-4405, side 2.)

Benny Hinn : "The Bible says the prophets spoke the Word not knowing what they were saying. But 4000 years passed when the Word became a human being and walked and talked and moved. The spoken Word became a human being. The spoken Word became flesh. The spoken Word got legs on, arms, eyes, hair, a body. And He was no longer saying, 'Thus sayeth the Lord.' He was saying, 'I say unto you.' The Word that was spoken through the lip [sic] of prophets was now walking on the seashore of Galilee. ("Benny Hinn" program on TBN [15 December 1990, emphasis in original]. This message, titled "The Person of Jesus" [delivered during Orlando Christian Center's Sunday morning service on 2 December 1991], comprises Part Four of Hinn's six-part series on "The Revelation of Jesus" [Orlando Christian Center, 1991], videotape #TV-292.)

Man has the Nature of Satan

Kenneth E. Hagin : "Adam committed high treason and sold out to Satan, and Satan, through Adam, became the god of this world. Adam didn't have the moral right to commit treason, but he had the legal right to do so." (The Believer's Authority, 19.)

Kenneth E. Hagin : "God came down in the cool of the day in the Garden of Eden to commune and fellowship with him [Adam]. as he had in the past. And he couldn't find him. He called out to him, 'Adam, where art thou?' And he said, 'I hid myself.' Why? Because of sin. Because, first, sin separates you from God. Secondly, by sinning, by listening to the Devil, he took upon himself the nature of the Devil into his spirit being." ("How Jesus Obtained His Name" [Tulsa, OK: Kenneth Hagin Ministries, n.d.], audiotape #44H01, side 2.)

E.W. Kenyon : "Man [i.e., Adam] was actually born again when he sinned. That is, he was born of the Devil. He became a partaker of Satanic Nature." (The Father and His Family, 17th ed. [Lynnwood, WA: Kenyon's Gospel Publishing Society, 1964], 48.)

God Cannot Act on the Earth

E.W. Kenyon : "Adam evidently had a legal right to transfer this dominion and authority into the hands of the enemy. God has been obliged through the long period of human history to recognize Satan's legal standing, and legal right and authority, and on this ground, and this only, can we understand the legal side of the Plan of Redemption. . . . Adam had legally transferred to him [Satan] the Authority with which God had invested him." (The Father and His Family, 38-39.)

Kenneth Copeland : "God had no avenue of lasting faith or moving in the earth. He had to have covenant with somebody. . . . He had to be invited in, in other words, or He couldn't come. God is on the outside looking in. In order to have any say so in the earth, He's gonna have to be in agreement with a man here." ("God's Covenants With Man II" [Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Ministries, 1985], audiotape #01-4404, side 1.)

Kenneth Copeland : "I was shocked when I found out who the biggest failure in the Bible actually is....The biggest one is God....I mean, He lost His top-ranking, most anointed angel; the first man He ever created; the first woman He ever created; the whole earth and all the Fullness therein; a third of the angels, at least--that's a big loss, man. . . . Now, the reason you don't think of God as a failure is He never said He's a failure. And you're not a failure till you say you're one." ("Praise-a-Thon" program on TBN [April 1988].)

Frederick K.C. Price : "God can't do anything in this earth realm except what we, the body of Christ, allow Him to do. Now that statement is so--that's so--that's so foreign and so contrary to tradition that, like I said, if they could get their hands on me right now most evangelicals would burn me at the stake and dismember me and feed me to the crocodiles, because they'll consider that statement to be just heresy." ("Ever Increasing Faith" program on TBN [1 May 1992], audiotape #PR11.) Cf. chapter 6, 85.

Frederick K.C. Price : "Adam, as I said, gave it [the earth] away to the serpent, to the Devil. As a result of it, he got his behind kicked out of the garden. He went out of Eden, out of the garden. He began to wander around, and he has troubles from day one. Now God was out of the business. God was out of the earth realm. God had no more stock in this earth realm. No more. None at all. Nothing He could do. Not a thing in the world He could do. . . .The only way God could get back into this earth realm, He had to have an invitation. Ha-hah! He had to have an invitation. And so, God looked around--saw different men, saw Noah, saw different ones. He gave them a few instructions. They did what He said. So and so and so and so. But, finally, He got to a point where He had His plan ready for operation. And He saw a man named Abraham." ("Ever Increasing Faith" program on TBN [1 May 1992], audiotape #PR11.)

E.W. Kenyon : "[A]s soon as they [the parties of the covenant] cut the covenant, they are recognized as blood brothers by others, and they are called the blood brothers....God and Abraham had entered the Covenant....God cut the Covenant with Abraham." (The Blood Covenant [Lynnwood, WA: Kenyon's Gospel Publishing Society, 1969], 14, 16.)

Charles Capps : "in this [the Abrahamic Covenant], God is establishing some legal entry into the earth, and He is giving Abraham access to Himself. . . . This Covenant gave God legal entry into the earth through Abraham....Until that time God was, to a certain extent, still on the outside looking in. He needed a legal entry through man so that He could destroy the works of the Devil who was running rampant on earth. . . . Abraham was God's avenue of entry into the earth." (Authority in Three Worlds, 60-61.)

Kenneth Copeland : "Once that [Abrahamic] covenant was established, God began to release His Word into the earth. He began to paint a picture of a Redeemer, a man who would be the manifestation of His Word in the earth." (The Power of' the Tongue, 9.)

Ken Copeland: When Adam originally sinned he gave his god nature to Satan. God could not intervene since He had made Adam the god of the earth. God was left on the outside looking in. (Following the Faith of Abraham; Tape #01-3001)

Ken Copeland: Satan wanted God to interject Himself into the world, which would be illegal, then Satan could turn God's light out. (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303)

Ken Copeland: Jesus existed only as an image in the heart of God, until such time as the prophets of the Old Testament could positively confess Jesus into existance through their prophecies. (The Power of the Tongue, pp. 8-10)

Jesus Was Rich

John Avanzini : "Jesus had a nice house, a big house--big enough to have company stay the night with Him at the house. Let me show you His house. Go over to John the first chapter and I'II show you His house. . . . Now, child of God, that's a house big enough to have company stay the night in. There's His house." ("Believer's Voice of Victory" program on TBN [20 January 1991].)

John Avanzini : "Jesus was handling big money because that treasurer He had was a thief. Now you can't tell me that a ministry with a treasurer that's a thief can operate on a few pennies. It took big money to operate that ministry because Judas was stealing out of that bag." ("Praise the Lord" program on TBN [15 September 1988].)

John Avanzini : "John 19 tells us that Jesus wore designer clothes. Well, what else you gonna call it? Designer clothes--that's blasphemy. No, that's what we call them today. I mean, you didn't get the stuff He wore off the rack. It wasn't a one-size-fits-all deal. No, this was custom stuff. It was the kind of a garment that kings and rich merchants wore. Kings and rich merchants wore that garment." "Believer's Voice of Victory" program on TBN [20 January 1991].)

.Frederick K C. Price : "The Bible says that He [Jesus] had a treasurer--a treasury (they called it "the bag"); that they had one man who was the treasurer, named Judas Iscariot; and the rascal was stealing out of the bag for three-and-a-half years and nobody knew that he was stealing. You know why? Because there was so much in it, He couldn't tell. Nobody could tell that anything was missing. If He had three oranges in the bottom of the bag and he stole two of them, don't tell me He wouldn't know that some was missing. Beside that, if Jesus didn't have anything, what do you need a treasury for? A treasury is for surplus. It's not for that which you're spending. It's only for surplus--to hold it until you need to spend it. Therefore, He must have had a whole lot that needed to be held in advance that He wasn't spending. So He must have had more than He was living on." ("Ever Increasing Faith" program on TBN [23 November 1990].)

John Avanzini : 'You don't think these Apostles didn't walk around with money? I mean, they had money. I just thank God that I saw this and gave up the denominational line and got on God's line before I starved me and all my family to death. Go to Acts 24. 1 mean. you don't think there wasn't money in this Paul's life!. . . Paul had the kind of money that people, that government officials, would, would block up justice to try to get a bribe out of old Paul." ("Believer's Voice of Victory" program on TBN [20 January 1991].)

Fred Price: Jesus and the disciples were rich, only rich people could take off for three and a half years. (Ever Increasing Faith, recorded 11/23/90)

You must be rich

Fred Price: "The whole point is I'm trying to get you to see--to get you out of this malaise of thinking that Jesus and the disciples were poor and then relating that to you- thinking that you, as a child of God, have to follow Jesus. The Bible says that He has left us an example that we should follow His steps. That's the reason why I drive a Rolls Royce. I'm following Jesus' steps." ("Ever Increasing Faith" program on TBN (9 December 1990].)

Fred Price: God has displeasure in poverty. (Ever Increasing Faith, recorded 11/16/90)

Robert Tilton: Being poor is a sin. (Success in Life, recorded 12/2/90)

Robert Tilton: The only time people were poor in the Bible is when they were under a curse. (Success in Life, recorded 12/2/90)

John Avanzini: Paul had the kind of money that could stop up justice. (Believer's Voice of Victory, (TBN) 1/20/91)

Benny Hinn: When you don't give money, it shows that you have the devil's nature. (Praise-a-thon (TBN), recorded 4/21/91)

Benny Hinn: Sow a big seed, when you confess it, you are activating the supernatural forces of God. (Praise-a-thon (TBN), recorded November 1990)

Benny Hinn: He raises about $12 million a year with the usual false promises of healing and prosperity in exchange for "seed faith" gifts -- a condition for "miracles." "Give no less than $100," he exhorts an audience, and promises to "lay hands on all the envelopes and ask God for financial miracles for the givers." This comes from a man who just traded in his Mercedes for a Jaguar and recently moved from the exclusive Heathrow development to the even more exclusive Alaqua, where he now lives in a $685,000 home. His suits are tailored, his shoes are Italian leather, and his wrists and finger glitter with gold and diamonds ... what he considers a modest lifestyle, as if everyone lives like this. He wears his diamond Rolex, diamond rings, gold bracelet and custom suits for all to see. ..."What's the big deal, for goodness sake?" he says. "What am I supposed to do, drive a Honda? ...That's not in the Bible. ... I'm sick and tired about hearing about streets of gold [in heaven]. I don't need gold in heaven. I got to have it now."

Jerry Savelle: "God plainly tells us that if we obey and serve him we shall - not may or might possibly but shall - spend our days in prosperity and our years in pleasures." ("Living In Divine Prosperity" Harrison House 1978)

John Avanzini: "God manifested visibly to me... the next thing the Lord said has become the most powerful part of my ministry...He said, from now on when you teach my people two principles, you will lead them in a very special offering. Clearly direct anyone who cannot be totally obedient not to participate. 1) they must give the exact amount I tell them to give, 2) they must expect their offering to be multiplied back to them. Then they must do one more thing. They must join their faith with yours believing their offering will be multiplied back to them one hundrefold....John, you must carefully watch for those who receive the hundredfold. I will use these obedient ones to encourage you in the hundredfold increase." ... Please notice I have placed a special envelope in the back of this booklet - you must now remove the envelope and... send your offering." ("Miracle Money" HIS Publishing Co, 1997)

Jerry Savelle: "First Corinthians 2:9 (KJV) says, "But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." ... What are the things which God hath prepared? It has to include the necessities of life. You can't live the good life if you are broke. God wants you blessed financially. ("Increased Activity of our Angels" online article 2002)

The Cross Was Not Sufficient

Charles Capps : "Notice that when Jesus said, 'I have finished the work' [John 17:4], we know that He had nor finished the work. But I want you to catch something in the way He prayed and the way He talked--He spoke the end results. He never spoke what was. He never admitted death or defeat. . . . Jesus was speaking the end results in His prayer to the Father." (Authority in Three Worlds, 258-.59, emphasis in original.)

Frederick K.C. Price : "Do you think that the punishment for our sin was to die on a cross? If that were the case, the two thieves could have paid your price. No, the punishment was to go into hell itself and to serve time in hell separated from God. . . . Satan and all the demons of hell thought that they had Him bound. And they threw a net over Jesus and they dragged Him down to the very pit of hell itself to serve our sentence." (Ever Increasing Faith Messenger [June 1980], 7; quoted in D.R. McConnell, A Different Gospel [Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1988], 120.)

Ken Copeland: Jesus death on the cross was not enough to save us. (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303) (Believer's Voice of Victory, September 1991) (Doctrinal Statement dated March 12, 1979)

Ken Copeland: "When His blood poured out, it did not atone" (letter written and signed by Kenneth Copeland, issued by his office on March 12th 1979).

Ken Copeland: The plan of redemption BEGAN when Jesus said "It is FINISHED". (Classic Redemption, p.13)

"When Jesus cried, 'It is finished!' He was not speaking of the plan of redemption. There were still three days and nights to go through before He went to the throne...Jesus' death on the cross was only the beginning of the complete work of redemption. (Jesus - Our Lord of Glory, Believer's Voice of Victory Magazine 10, 4; April 1982, p. 3)

Kenneth Hagin: Christ's physical death on the cross was not enough to save us. (How Jesus obtained His Name, Tape 44H0

Jesus took The Nature of Satan

Charles Capps : "The sinless son of God became as a serpent that He might swallow up all evil....If you will behold what happened when the sin offering was made and the fact that Jesus became a serpent upon the pole, it will change your life. . . . Jesus died spiritually, not for any of His own sin! He became the serpent on the pole, the snake on the ground, in the Old Testament type." (Authority in Three Worlds, 177, 166-67.)

Paul E. Billheimer : "The Father turned Him over, not only to the agony and death of Calvary, but to the satanic torturers of His pure spirit as part of the just dessert of the sin of all the race. As long as Christ was 'the essence of sin' he was at Satan's mercy in that place of torment. . . .While Christ identified with sin, Satan and the hosts of hell ruled over Him as over any lost sinner. During that seemingly endless age in the nether abyss of death, Satan did with Him as he would, and all hell was 'in carnival.' " (Destined for the Throne, special edition for TBN [Fort Washington, PA: Christian Literature Crusade, 1988(orig. 1975)]. 84.)

Kenneth Copeland : "He [Jesus] is suffering all that there is to suffer. There is no suffering left apart from Him. His emaciated, poured out, little, wormy spirit is down in the bottom of that thing [hell]. And the Devil thinks he's got Him destroyed." ("Believer's Voice of Victory" program [21 April 1991]. This message was originally delivered at the Full Gospel Motorcycle Rally Association 1990 Rally at Eagle Mountain Lake, Texas.)

Ken Copeland: Jesus took on the nature of Satan when He was on the cross. (Jesus lost His divine nature). (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303) (Classic Redemption, p.13)

Benny Hinn: Jesus at His death became one with Satan. (Benny Hinn broadcast, recorded 12/15/90)

Jesus was Tortured in Hell

Charles Capps : " If there's any part of hell Jesus did not suffer, you'll have to suffer it. But, thank God, Jesus suffered it all, for you! In the place of the wicked dead, all the demons of hell and Satan rejoiced over the prize. The corridors of hell were filled with joy. 'We've done it! We've captured the Son of God! We'll no longer be in the pit of the damned! The earth and all that is therein is ours! Forever it will be ours!' Rejoicing in hell had never been so great as it was that day. But it was short-lived." (Authority in Three Worlds, 143, emphasis in original.)

Kenneth Copeland : "Satan didn't realize He [Jesus] is in there [hell] illegally. . . . This man had not sinned. This man has not fallen out of the covenant of God, and He had the promise of God for deliverance. And Satan fell into the trap. He took Him into hell illegally. He carried Him in there [when] He did not sin." ("What Happened from the Cross to the Throne" [Fort Worth, TX: Kenneth Copeland Ministries, 1990], audiotape #02-0017, side 2.)

Ken Copeland: Jesus was dragged down into the bowels of Hell where He was beaten and bruised by Satan and his demons until Jesus could finally fight His way out of Hell 3 days later. (Believer's Voice of Victory, September 11, 1991) (Classic Redemption, p.13)

Charles Capps : "When Jesus was in the pit of hell. in that terrible torment, no doubt the Devil and his emissaries gathered around to see the annihilation of God's Son. But in the corridors of hell, there came a great voice from heaven: 'Turn Him Loose! He's there illegally!' And all of hell became paralyzed." (Authority in Three Worlds, 143, emphasis in original.)

Heretical Doctrines About Jesus Christ

Kenneth Copeland (through whom Jesus allegedly delivered the following prophecy) : "They crucified Me [Jesus] for claiming that I was God. But I didn't claim I was God; I just claimed I walked with Him [the Father] and that He was in Me." ("Take Time to Pray," Believer's Voice of Victory 15, 2 [February 1987]:9.)

E.W. Kenyon : "Jesus was conceived without sin. His body was not mortal. His body did not become mortal until the Father laid our sin nature upon Him when He hung on the cross. The moment that He became sin, His body became mortal, only then could He die. When this happened. spiritual death, the nature of Satan, took possession of His Spirit....He was to partake of Spiritual Death, the nature of the Adversary. . . .Jesus knew that the moment had come, and He was to he made Sin. He must partake of that dread nature of the Adversary. His body would become mortal. Satan would become His master. . . . He [Jesus] had been lifted up as a serpent. Serpent is Satan. Jesus knew He was going to be lifted up, united with the Adversary." (What Happened from the Cross to the Throne [Lynnwood, WA: Kenyon's Gospel Publishing Society, 1969], 20, 33, 44-45.)

Ken Copeland: Jesus has a beginning and an end. (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303)

Ken Copeland: Jesus has not remained the same, he has changed. (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303)

Ken Copeland: The (eternal) Abrahamic Covenant came to an end when Jesus died on the cross. (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303)

Jesus Was Born Again in Hell

Kenneth Copeland : "I can't understand Christians that refuse to believe that Jesus went to hell. I want to tell you something if he didn't go, you're going to have to." (The Christian Channel Europe "Believer's Voice of Victory" [May 1998)

Kenneth Copeland : "That Word of the living God went down into that pit of destruction and charged the spirit of Jesus with resurrection power! Suddenly His twisted, death-wracked spirit began to fill out and come back to life. He began to look like something the devil had never seen before." ("The Price of it All," Believer's Voice of Victory 19, 9 [September 1991]:4.)

Kenneth Copeland : "He [Jesus] was literally being reborn before the devil's very eyes. He began to flex His spiritual muscles. . . .Jesus was born again--the firstborn from the dead the Word calls Him--and He whipped the devil in his own backyard. He took everything he had away from him. He took his keys and his authority away from him." (Ibid., 4-6.)

Kenneth E. Hagin : "Every man who has been born again is an incarnation and Christianity is a miracle. The believer is as much an incarnation as was Jesus of Nazareth." ("The Incarnation," The Word of Faith 13, 12 [December 1980]:14; cf. E.W. Kenyon, The Father and His Family, 100.)

Ken Copeland: Jesus was reborn in the pits of hell. (What Happened From the Cross to the Throne, Tape #00-0303)

Ken Hagin: Jesus suffered spiritual death! (How Jesus obtained His Name, Tape 44H01)

Joyce Meyer: "There is no hope of anyone going to heaven unless they believe this truth I am presenting. You cannot go to heaven unless you believe with all your heart that Jesus took your place in hell" (p. 37).. [The Most Important Decision You Will Ever Make, Booklet, 1991 edition]

We Should Demand Anything

Frederick K.C. Price : "When I first got saved they didn't tell me I could do anything. What they told me to do was that whenever I prayed I should always say, 'The will of the Lord be done.' Now, doesn't that sound humble? It does. Sounds like humility, it's really stupidity. I mean, you know, really, we insult God. I mean, we really do insult our Heavenly Father. We do; we really insult Him without even realizing it. If you have to say, 'If it be thy will' or 'Thy will be done'--if you have to say that, then you're calling God a foolbecause He's the One that told us to ask. . . . If God's gonna give me what He wants me to have, then it doesn't matter what I ask. I'm only gonna get what God wants me to have. So that's an insult to God's intelligence." ("Ever Increasing Faith" program on TBN [16 November 1990].)

Kenneth Copeland : "As a believer, you have a right to make commands in the name of Jesus. Each time you stand on the Word, you are commanding God to a certain extent because it is His Word." (Our Covenant with God [Fort Worth, TX: KCP Publications, 1987], 32.)

Fred Price: Never say "Lord if it be thy will". (Success in Life, recorded 12/14/91)

Robert Tilton: You can have whatever you say. (Praise The Lord TBN 9.2.90)

Jerry Savelle: "The moment a believer speaks God's Word, the angels hear it and when they hear it they know they are under assignment by God. They don't question it, and they don't have the right to decide whether they are going to obey or not. . ... We know that angels are obligated to perform and execute the commands of God when they are uttered from His mouth, but what about us? What about when you and I utter the commands of God from our mouths? Do the angels pay equal attention to what we say as when God says it? Hebrews 1:14 tell us that they are all ministering spirits. The Amplified says, "Are not the angels all ministering spirits (servants) sent out in the service [of God for the assistance] of those who are to inherit salvation?" Not only are they servants of God, but this would indicate they are our servants as well. ... If it's God's pleasure for you and me to enjoy the good life, then the angels have an obligation. ( ("Increased Activity of our Angels" online article 2002)

Nobody should be sick

Fred Price: can you glorify God in your body, when it doesn't function right? How can you glorify God? How can He get glory when your body doesn't even work?...What makes you think the Holy Ghost wants to live inside a body where He can't see out through the windows and He can't hear with the ears? What makes you think the Holy Spirit wants to live inside of a physical body where the limbs and the organs and the cells do not function right?...And what makes you think He wants to live in a temple where He can't see out of the eyes, and He can't walk with the feet, and He can't move with the hand?...The only eyes that He has that are in the earth realm are the eyes that are in the body. If He can't see out of them then God's gonna be limited... (Is God Glorified Through Sickness? audiotape #FP605.)


© 1995-2013 Tricia Tillin of Banner Ministries. All rights reserved. Cross+Word Website:  This document is the property of its author and is not to be displayed on other websites, redistributed, sold, reprinted, or reproduced in printed in any other format without permission. Websites may link to this article, if they provide proper title and author information. One copy may be downloaded, stored and/or printed for personal research. All spelling and phraseology is UK English.